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Tuesday, June 20

  1. page Effective and Equitable - Is Math Homework Hurting Student Achievement edited ... Homework is a mainstay of education. Being sent home with problems to exercise your mathematic…
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    Homework is a mainstay of education. Being sent home with problems to exercise your mathematical abilities was common place for most of the people who have gone through high school. One’s experience with math homework varies from person to person and depends on a variety of factors, such as: time, responsibilities outside school, other homework assignments and available resources. This has brought into question the effectiveness of mathematics homework and even its efficacy. This has been a growing debate for several years. Dr. Harris Cooper, a Duke University professor working in the department of Psychology and Neuroscience, published a book titled, The Battle Over Homework in 1994. The book discussed the climate of mathematical homework, its effectiveness, and methods of making mathematical homework more effective. A clear advocate for homework’s usefulness in the classroom. Meanwhile, arguing against homework has been the mathematics education professor at Stanford University, Dr. Jo Boaler. Boaler, has written several books on teaching mathematics and claims that the implementation of homework only increases inequity, and should be discontinued in teaching.
    In 2015, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), using a data set of 13 million students, observed no difference in the achievement of students who were given homework versus students who were not (Boaler, 2016). Two researchers, Baker and LeTendre (2015), compared standardized math scores across different countries, finding no positive correlation between frequency of homework and achievement (Boaler, 2016). Further, academic research has even suggested that homework has a negative effect on achievement (Boaler, 2016); but how could this be the case? Imagine a student being given a math assignment, which may require the use of a graphing calculator. What if a student doesn’t have a calculator? What if they don’t have access to internet to use an online calculator? These situations are present, even in more affluent schools and can severely widen the learning gap. Thus, due to a lack of available resources, students from less-privileged schools, areas, and households may be left with an unfair disadvantage (Boaler, 2016). Further, this can turn homework into a source of unwanted stress and frustration. Boaler, even discusses the effect this can have on younger students and time they have to spend with their families. Some families barely get to have two hour together during the week. One parent, Karl Greenfeld attempted to do his daughters homework for a week, writing that multiple nights they would work for 3 hours or more (Greenfeld, 2013). Unfortunately, not all students have parents who have the time or knowledge to assist with their homework. As such, not only can it be argued that homework perpetuates inequity, but it also can weaken familial bonds.
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    below 7th.
    Yet,

    Yet,
    for as much praise as these schools
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    calendars, and afterschoolafter-school programs. Cooper
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    time management, developdevelops good study habits, and fosterfosters independent learning
    Trends/Issue
    So, which side is correct? Is homework a damaging, ineffective chore or is it an essential part of our students’ education and development? Well, why can’t it be both? Homework can be an effective tool when utilized correctly. In the late 80’s, there were several studies done that included over 3,300 students, 85 classrooms, 30 schools, and 11 states. Between these studies they established 48 usable comparisons. In 70% of the comparisons, homework seemed to have had a positive effect on achievement (Cooper, 2001). However, when used improperly, homework can be stressful, damaging, and inequitable. Thus, the issue becomes making homework more effective and equitable.
    Homework shouldn’t just focus on same-day-content. Homework should be used as an opportunity to practice old content and prepare for upcoming content as well (Cooper, 2001). Students need to be held accountable for completing their work correctly. As such, homework should be graded for accuracy along with completion, with an opportunity for students to correct or revise their work (Woolfolk, 2016). Homework should focus on reinforcing conceptual understanding more than mathematical procedures. This can be done by assigning reflection questions or other assignments than require students to think more deeply about the content. These will increase the quality of homework, but that still leaves the issue of equity. Since not all students have access to the same resources, no assignments should require the use of technology (i.e., computers, graphing calculators, internet, etc.). Further, to allow those living in a less stable environment an opportunity to complete their work, assignments should be short. High school students can work between approximately 90-150 minutes before homework begins to have a diminishing return (Denisco, 2013). Not all students have this much time to devote to work. A student living in a hectic household will be more able to complete an assignment that takes 20 minutes as opposed to an hour.
    The debate on homework will not be ending anytime soon. Many schools still include homework as part of their policy, much tom the dismay of the parents. Yet, even with more schools adopting a no-homework policy, they too are met with resistance from parents and educators. For all the research that says that homework is effective, there are just as many studies that say they are. There are no clear answers or solutions when it comes to homework. Therefore, it is the responsibility of any educator who uses homework to make sure homework it is effective and equitable by taking the aforementioned steps.
    References:
    Boaler, J. (2016). Mathematical mindsets: Unleashing students’ potential through creative math, inspiring messages and innovative teaching. (1st edition). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. This book provides research, data and experiences from the author in regards to understanding and improving math education.
    Cooper, H. (2001). The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents. (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. This book provides research and data in regards to understanding and improving math homework.
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    5:42 pm
  2. page Charter Schools' Impact on Student Success edited {Charter_school_cartoon.jpg} OVERVIEW Charter schools are publicly funded schools and are be…
    {Charter_school_cartoon.jpg}
    OVERVIEW
    Charter schools are publicly funded schools and are becoming increasingly popular in the educational community. Charter Schools are called schools of choice because unlike traditional schools where students are assigned to a public school based on their residential location, parents and students get to choose to enroll in a school that may offer a unique learning environment, such as a STEM school or performing arts school. Many feel that charter schools better prepare our students for success because these schoolshave more autonomy than public schools in regard to curriculum, instruction, and operations.
    Curriculum and Instruction
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    other schools mightmay have students to come to
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    receive instruction both,both online and
    {Growthinstudentpopulation.png}
    TRENDS AND ISSUES
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    I personally am a proponent of public schools. However, as charter schools continue to shape educational policy, whether I teach at a public or charter school, I have a responsibility to do all I can today to help prepare our youth for the future.
    ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
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    pp. 210‐229.
    The authors examine five years of data on students moving into these schools from the traditional public sector. The authors consider student attributes and the school and district contexts that they are leaving. The better students are performing relative to their peers, the less likely they are to move into a charter. There are higher rates of minority students in the charter sector, and Hispanics appear especially likely to transfer. On the other hand, special-needs students are less likely to be in charters. White students are more likely to enter a charter school with more white students than minority students who are more likely to move into charters with more minority students. These findings suggest that charter schools do not "cream skim" the best students away from the traditional sector, although there is evidence that charters do not provide an educational home for all.
    2. Finn, C.E., Manno, B.V., and Vanourek, G. (2000). Charter Schools in Action: Renewing Public Education. Princeton University Press.
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    5:35 pm
  3. page Educational Voucher Programs and the Concern Over Discrimination, Cream-Skimming, and Religious Freedom edited Overview History ... effect on the quality of Specifics of Voucher Programs Among the States…
    Overview
    History
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    effect on the quality of
    Specifics of Voucher Programs Among the States
    As mentioned above, policy specifics of voucher programs vary among the 14 states and the District of Columbia.[1] Voucher programs in six of these 14 locations (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Utah) have admissions that are open only to students with a documented disability and/or current IEP (Individualized Education Plan) (“School Choice in America,” 2017; “School Voucher Laws: State-By-State Comparison,” 2017). Out of all 14 locations, ten of these offer some mention and, to some extent, eligibility for students with certain disabilities or IEPs. Maine and Vermont operate voucher programs that are only open to students whose home school districts do not have the necessary public schools available. Voucher programs operating in the remaining six locations (Indiana, Louisiana, North Carolina, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Washington D.C.) have admissions that are, to some extent, based on household income. Mississippi, Maine, Vermont, Washington D.C., and Wisconsin (except for students in the Racine area) are the only locations that do not require their eligible students to attend at least some public school first. However, in the state of Indiana, public school attendance as a requirement is waived if a student’s neighborhood school received an “F” grade from the state or if the student received a tax credit scholarship the previous year.
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    Trend or Issue {ednext20044_51a.jpg} {1080x580-charter-voucher-garn-press-1080x580.jpg}
    The debate over school choice and voucher programs is both a trend and an issue. Since the mid-1900s, school choice has been on the rise (“School Vouchers,” 2017). More recently, Wisconsin became the first state to target low income households with a voucher program in 1989. Florida, in 2001, was the first state to offer vouchers specifically for students with disabilities. Washington D.C., Utah, and Indiana all followed suit in 2004, 2007, and 2011, respectively. In 2016, the numbers of voucher students in each state is as follows: 23 in Arkansas; 92,000 in Florida (an increase of 78,600 since the previous year); 4,185 in Georgia; 34,299 (3% of the state’s total student population) in Indiana; 7,452 in Louisiana; 5,727 in Maine; 159 in Mississippi; 6,472 in North Carolina; 47,286 in Ohio; 553 in Oklahoma; 905 in Utah; 3,350 in Vermont; 1,166 in Washington D.C.; and 33,987 in Wisconsin (Postal, 2016; “School Choice in America,” 2017; Turner, 2017a). In total and as of 2016, 237,564 students were enrolled in a voucher program in their state.
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    to traditionally underservedunder-served students. Opponents
    As it relates to improvements in student achievement, there is a plethora of studies that have aimed to answer the question regarding whether voucher programs lead to healthy competition and increases in student achievement. While some studies suggest a relatively large and positive impact of voucher programs (Hoxby, 1994; Hoxby, 2003), others claim relatively modest positive gains from competition (Belfield & Levin, 2002). A study conducted by Paul Peterson et al. (2000) revealed academic improvements for African-American students only after the first and second years. Others have showed significant improvements early on but have failed to exhibit continued growth despite increases in enrollment (Carnoy et al., 2007). In a review of past research, Michael Pons (2002) summarized findings related to access, student achievement, accountability, costs, student improvement, and public opinion within private voucher programs. In it, both successes and failures are noted. In addition, both positive and negative findings are contested by those in disagreement with the outcomes.
    Another major goal of voucher programs is to increase access to educational opportunities for low-income, minority, and special needs students; individuals that some would argue are underserved within the public education domain in which that they are forced, due to financial and other constraints, to participate in (Carnoy, Adamson, Chudgar, Luschei, & Witte, 2007; Chakrabarti, 2013). Proponents maintain the effectiveness of such programs in accomplishing this goal. Contrastingly, opponents claim that, not only are these programs not accomplishing their goal, they are worsening segregation within education and that a lack of uniformity in admission to these eligible private schools is facilitating purposeful discrimination based on race, religion, sexual orientation, and home-life (Carnoy et al., 2007; Chakrabarti, 2013; Kavey, 2003).
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    This study examines the history of voucher programs. It explains that, although vouchers have been used in the past as a means to combat the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education (by more conservative and right-wing factions of politics), there has also been historical action by some Democrats and more liberal-leaning factions of politics to promote vouchers.
    Friedman, M. (1955). The role of government in education. In R.A. Solo (Ed.), Economics and the Public Interest. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
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    equal opportunity.
    Hoxby, C. M. (1994). Does competition among public schools benefit students and taxpayers? American Economic Review, 90(5), 1209-1238.
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    and taxpayers.
    Hoxby, C. M. (2003). The Economics of School Choice. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    This book summarizes several studies conducted by Hoxby that illustrate the benefits and advantages of implementing voucher programs.
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    This article includes some history related to voucher programs. Traditionally, vouchers were used in mostly southern states by white students and families as a means to escape the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education.
    Witte, J. (1997). Achievement effects of the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Universrit of Wisconsin-Madison.
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    state performance.
    Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 536 U.S. 639 (2002). Retrieved from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us
    supreme-court/536/639.html
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    US Constitution.
    [1] The state of Maryland enacted a voucher program in 2016 that has begun to give out vouchers for the next school year (“School Voucher Laws: State-By-State Comparison,” 2017). It was not included in this paper.
    [2] Chakrabarti (2013, p. 192) defines “cream-skimming” as the, “flight of high income and more committed public school students and parents to the private sector.”
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    5:29 pm
  4. page Trends and Issues Wikipages for Summer 2017 edited ... The Lack of Parent Involvement Contributes to Lower Success Rates By TaKesha Williams Inequal…
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    The Lack of Parent Involvement Contributes to Lower Success Rates By TaKesha Williams
    Inequalities of What's Expected and Accepted For Gender Roles of Educators By Jeff Peters
    Earth Science is Not Extinct! By Buffy Cook
    Educational Voucher Programs and the Concern Over Discrimination, Cream-Skimming, and Religious Freedom By Rebecca Moody
    Credit Recovery By Jack Harney
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    5:23 pm
  5. page A Look at the Impact of Teacher and Administrators' Relationships edited ... {https://thosewhoteach.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/blameteachers.jpg} Overview: ... relat…
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    {https://thosewhoteach.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/blameteachers.jpg}
    Overview:
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    relationship that is essential to
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    a recent EducationWeekEducation Week forum, ‘Teachers
    Trend or Issue?
    This specific topic could be considered a trend and issue within middle and secondary education. Beginning with the issue at hand, across content areas, and even more so within specific areas such as Math, Science, and Special Education, there is high demand for teachers because of the shortage that is seemingly growing. According to research done by John Fensterwald, he noted that 17% of new teachers leave the profession within the first five years (nationally speaking) according to the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Educational Statistics (2015). While some numbers may be higher in different states, this particular information came from a national level. With a lack of teacher’s staying in the field, parts of the nation are experiencing a “teaching crisis.” States such as Arizona and Utah have such a shortage in teaching, whereas a state like Massachusetts is feeling “less concerned about it” because they are a better-paying state for teachers according to an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond (C {teachers-wanted_slide-f490f6ba4043bb11d14c641c5fd6a253f638a74b-s800-c85.jpg} EO of Learning Policy Institute and founder of the Stanford University’s Center for Opportunity Policy in Education) (September 15, 2016). With more and more beginning teachers leaving the field, researchers began looking for a connection between this and the relationship the teacher had with the administration. The U.S. Department of Education {U.S. Department of Education.pdf} conducted a survey in 2012-2013 from teachers who had left the teaching field. One table is labeled “Percentage distribution of working public teachers leavers who rated various aspects of their current occupation as better in teaching, better in current position or not better or worse”. One of the categories is listed out as recognition and support from administrators/managers. In this listing, 12.5% claimed it was better in teaching, and 44.9% claimed it was better in current position (outside of the teaching field). This type of data suggests a connection between the relationship built between beginning teachers and administration and the turnover rate.
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    5:17 pm
  6. page Trends and Issues Wikipages for Summer 2017 edited Everyone Gets a Trophy By Mindi Peek Teaching is a CAREER By Tammy Johnson Us Vs. Them: A Look …
    Everyone Gets a Trophy By Mindi Peek
    Teaching is a CAREER By Tammy Johnson
    Us Vs. Them: A Look at the Impact of Teacher and Administrators' Relationships By Cassia Roper
    The Lack of Parent Involvement Contributes to Lower Success Rates By TaKesha Williams
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    5:13 pm
  7. page Trends and Issues Wikipages for Summer 2017 edited ... The Lack of Parent Involvement Contributes to Lower Success Rates By TaKesha Williams Inequal…
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    The Lack of Parent Involvement Contributes to Lower Success Rates By TaKesha Williams
    Inequalities of What's Expected and Accepted For Gender Roles of Educators By Jeff Peters
    Fidget or Focus By John Brock
    Introduction of Computer Science at an Early Age By Zachary I. Edwards

    Earth Science is Not Extinct! By Buffy Cook
    Educational Voucher Programs and the Concern Over Discrimination, Cream-Skimming, and Religious Freedom By Rebecca Moody
    Inclusion Classrooms and Meeting Science Expectations By Alfred Allen III
    Grade Retention Vs. Social Promotion By Katelyn Clements

    Credit Recovery By Jack Harney
    Charter Schools' Impact on Student Success By Deirdre E. Paris
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    Someone Should Care - I'll Get Right on That By Madi Workman
    When Tupac Meets Langston: The Complexity of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy By N. Alexander Overby
    Golden Seals but No Skills By Rebecca Dietrich
    Standardization - Now Sink into the Floor: Nature Vs. Nurture and Education's Sunken Place By Branden Printup
    13 Reasons Why in the Classroom By Logan Dimsdale
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    5:07 pm

Tuesday, June 13

  1. page From Zero Tolerance to Restorative Justice edited OVERVIEW ... is a swiftly swiftly changing aspect ... and climate. TREND Traditiona…

    OVERVIEW
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    is a
    swiftly
    swiftly changing aspect
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    and climate.
    TREND
    Traditionally, schools are considered formal socializing institutions that are publically mandated to function under a climate of order and organization (Carter, Fine, & Russell, 2014). In order to achieve and maintain order and organization, schools must have a way in which they manage student behavior. This paper serves to examine the shift in United States’ schools behavioral management strategies over the past 20 years, namely from harsh, discriminatory zero tolerance policies to research-based restorative justice policies that focus on support and fostering social and emotional growth among students.
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    zero-tolerance policies
    In

    In
    the late
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    Peterson, 1999).
    By the early 1990’s, these zero tolerance policies were beginning to be phased out of other legal realms but continued to expand in public education as many school boards extended these policies to include infractions ranging from dress code violations and school disruption to drugs and violence, and were often carried out in the forms of suspension, expulsion, and referral to juvenile justice agencies for rule violations. The use of these policies only continued to increase in scope and severity throughout the 1990’s exacerbated by the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act was issued and rash of 60 weapon related incidents that occurred throughout the decade, including the Columbine High School Massacre in 1999.
    Zero-tolerance: Limitations and data
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    {r20000310-chicago.gif} Figure 1. Expulsion rates in Chicago, IL.
    across the country did not have any correlation with safer school environments or increasing achievement rates (Losen & Martinez, 2013). Secondly, data pertaining to the distribution of suspensions and expulsions among subgroups raised concerns due to their inherent conflicts with the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark case ensuring all students were guaranteed equal, and quality education (The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, n.d.). Specifically, these conflicts lie in the appearance of inequity as it relates to the disproportionate suspension and expulsion rates of minority students as well as marginalized groups such as students with disabilities, LGBT students, and youth living in poverty and/or foster care (Carter, Fine, & Russell, 2014). The U.S. Department of Education has addressed the issues related to high levels of student suspension and expulsion across the country and the glaring discrepancy in number across subgroups based on race, gender, and ability.For example, According to U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, “one of every five African American male students was suspended out of school at least once during the school year 2009-10, three and a half times the rate of their peers” (Carter, Fine, & Russell, 2014). Additional data pertaining to specific districts and states can also be obtained through the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights.
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    and support
    Due to these limitations, there has been a large shift toward alternative behavioral management plans such as the implementation of emotional and social support via restorative justice theory. The use of restorative justice theory and practices, much like zero-tolerance policies, was borne out of greater societal need and is not limited to schools. According to the Centre for Justice and Reconciliation, a head organization in research and implementation restorative justice programs, restorative justice is used primarily in
    {Restorative Justice1.jpg} Figure 2. What are restorative justice practices?
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    With restorative justice practices gaining popularity among educational organizations including the U.S. Department of Education itself, there has been a wide roll-out of these practices throughout the county. Reflective of differences in school cultures among districts as well as entire states, there are many differences between how these practices are implemented. Some schools, for example, are using programs such as Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS) to change the current culture of their school. Others, such as the Los Angeles Unified and Oakland Unified School Districts in California, are directly repealing zero-tolerance policies by narrowing the actions that qualify for suspension and expulsion (Rott, 2013, Tucker, 2015).
    {Restorative Justice3.jpg} Figure 4. A Tale of Two Schools.
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    the social
    and
    and emotional needs
    Conclusion
    While behavioral management practices have begun to shift in a more positive direction focused on educational equity and social and emotional development for students, the battle is far from over. In the future, more research pertaining to the implementation of restorative justice practices will be needed to determine the effectiveness of such practices. It is clear, however, from current research that successful implementation relies heavily on clarity among administration, faculty and staff; the communication of high expectations for all students, and consistency throughout schools.
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    8:56 am
  2. page From Zero Tolerance to Restorative Justice edited OVERVIEW ... is a swiftly swiftly changing aspect TREND Traditionally, schools are cons…

    OVERVIEW
    ...
    is a swiftly
    swiftly
    changing aspect
    TREND
    Traditionally, schools are considered formal socializing institutions that are publically mandated to function under a climate of order and organization (Carter, Fine, & Russell, 2014). In order to achieve and maintain order and organization, schools must have a way in which they manage student behavior. This paper serves to examine the shift in United States’ schools behavioral management strategies over the past 20 years, namely from harsh, discriminatory zero tolerance policies to research-based restorative justice policies that focus on support and fostering social and emotional growth among students.
    (view changes)
    8:53 am

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